By: John Hunter Peel Alexander, MD
Researchers on the Teaching for Understanding Project in Harvard developed a particular view of understanding cheap escitalopram 5 mg anxiety grounding, terming it a ‘performance view’. This is defined as “a matter of being able to do a variety of thought-demanding things with a topic, like explaining, finding evidence and examples, generalising, applying, analogising, and 12 representing the topic in new ways”. This performance view of understanding is central to the construction of the Teaching for Understanding (TfU) framework, which will be discussed in more detail in later chapters of this report. The TfU framework is an important means by which practitioners can restructure their classrooms in terms of teaching and assessment. The framework suggests that teachers – to make their planning more specific – need to ask four central questions: What shall we teach In essence, the TfU framework is constructed around the answers to these four questions. In addition, at least five other Irish educationalists attended the Institutes, thus developing an expertise in aspects of Project Zero’s work. In November 1996 and 1997, Steve Seidel came to Cork to work with the project team and the participating teachers and led workshops on Portfolio Assessment. The following year, in March 1998, Lois Hetland visited Cork and facilitated a seminar on Teaching for Understanding. Curriculum planners and policy makers were becoming more aware of the potential of authentic forms of assessment for improving student learning. Innovative forms of assessment had been introduced in programmes such as the Leaving Certificate Applied, the Link Modules of the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme, the Junior Certificate Schools Programme and Post-Leaving Certificate courses certified by the National Council for Vocational Awards. At primary level, the Review Body on the Primary Curriculum had decided not to go down the road of focusing on national standardised testing, but to recognise the potential of various forms of assessment for 13 improving student learning this approach was supported by the partners in education, including management bodies, the Irish National Teachers Organisation – the union which represents primary teachers – and the National Parents Council – Primary. In successive publications, the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment advised that modes and techniques of assessment in mainstream education, particularly at junior cycle level, should be broadened to reflect the aims of the curriculum. Course committees at second level – at both junior and senior cycle – recommended that approaches to assessment for various subjects should be congruent with the aims of the curriculum for those subjects. By 1997 it had been decided that 60% of the marks would be allocated for coursework and 40% for a terminal written examination. This balance between ongoing assessment and written end of cycle assessment was welcomed by many educators, as it had broken the long-standing tradition in the Irish public examination system of awarding most of the marks to terminal written examinations. However, there was considerable resistance from some second-level teachers – especially teachers who were members of the Association of Secondary Teachers of Ireland – to assessing their own pupils for certification purposes and this resistance 13 Regina Murphy “Classroom-Based Assessment in the Revised Primary Curriculum” in Aine Hyland (ed. The issue however, relates only to assessment for national certification purposes – teachers have been and continue to be involved on an ongoing basis, in assessing their pupils for purposes other than national certification. However, this resistance to school-based assessment for certification, introduced a challenge into this project which teachers in other countries would find difficult to understand, as teachers elsewhere are regularly involved in assessing their own pupils for certification purposes. Before concluding this introduction, the following section has been included to provide the context within which this research was carried out. The section will be of particular relevance to overseas readers who might not be familiar with Ireland or with the Irish educational system. Ireland – Historical, Social and Economic Context Ireland is an island on the western periphery of Europe.
Minimal transurethral prostatectomy plus bladder neck incision versus standard transurethral prostatectomy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomised prospective study discount 20mg escitalopram amex anxiety symptoms watery mouth. Correlation between ultrasonographic bladder measurements and urodynamic findings in children with recurrent urinary tract infection. Risk factors for prostatic inflammation extent and infection in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Comparison of 25 and 75 mg/day naftopidil for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized controlled study. High-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparative study between 30-and 60-minute single treatments. Natural course of lower urinary tract symptoms following discontinuation of alpha-1-adrenergic blockers in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clinicopathological study of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis. Silodosin, a novel selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prevalence of and risk factors for nocturia: Analysis of a health screening program. Retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter: Nagoya experience. Unequal use of new technologies by race: the use of new prostate surgeries (transurethral needle ablation, transurethral microwave therapy and laser) among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. High-power (80 W) potassium titanyl phosphate laser prostatectomy in 128 high-risk patients. Acute renal failure associated with dysfunctioning detrusor muscle in multiple sclerosis. Follow-up of men with elevated prostate-specific antigen and one set of benign biopsies at prostate cancer screening. Common conditions of the aging male: erectile dysfunction, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cardiovascular disease and depression. Metabolic profile in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer and normal glucose tolerance. Is the minimally invasive treatment as good as transurethral resection for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tissue microarray analysis reveals prognostic significance of syndecan-1 expression in prostate cancer.
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A companion wheelchair is lightweight and is fairly easy to best 20 mg escitalopram anxiety group therapy fold and lift into the trunk or backseat of the car. Your insurance carrier may or may not help cover the cost of this type of wheelchair. You will need a prescription from your physician in order to get coverage if it is available. Airlines do not charge for this service, so the only expense is a gratuity to the transport aide. For Daily Long-Term Use • If you require a wheelchair to get around, you need to see a physical or occupational therapist for specific recommendations. There are several features that may be tailored to your needs, such as: • Back or trunk support • Brake extenders • Swing-away, removable leg rests • Removable, desk-length arm rests • Firm seating base with a pressure relief cushion • You will need a prescription and a letter of medical necessity from your doctor to have your insurance company assist in paying for the wheelchair. It is important to see a physical or occupational therapist before buying an electric wheelchair or a scooter. When possible, it is best to work with a physical or occupational therapist to learn the best techniques. Swivel or rocking chairs are not a good choice because they can trigger loss of balance and falling. These may work well for persons who can walk the aid of a cane or walker, but who cannot rise from the chair alone. It is best to check with a physical or occupational therapist before you invest in a lift chair or cushion. Use arm rests to slowly lower body into the chair this helps avoid “crash” landings. This causes you to lean too far forward which can lead to loss of balance or falls. Tips for getting in and out of a car First make sure the car is parked far enough away from the curb so that you can step onto the level ground before you go into, or get out of, the car. Reach over to the inside edge of the seat and begin lifting one leg in at a time Use a pillow to make low seats higher Use a plastic bag on cloth seats to make turning easier To get out of a car: 1. Reach inner arm for the dashboard and begin moving one leg at a time out of the car. Scoot forward to the edge and lean forward while pushing up from the seat or dashboard. Lift each leg into the car Reverse the procedure to return the person to the wheelchair. A physical or occupational therapist can make an activity and exercise plan tailored to your abilities. Booklets about exercise and fitness are available free of charge from the National Parkinson Foundation. Here are some suggestions: • Sitting and reaching for items stretches muscles in the arms and trunk.
By completing this activity buy 20 mg escitalopram with mastercard anxiety klonopin, you should be able to assess the trust level in your organization and help bring about a higher level of trusting others and cooperating more fully in organizational tasks. David Kolzow 65 this activity is most productive when done by the reader while working with a small group of coworkers. Make a list of all of the conditions in any organization that lead to high levels of creativity, individuality, and trust. Make a list of all the conditions in any organization that minimize trust and that lead to greater dependency. Underline those statements in each of the above lists that describe conditions that presently exist in your own organization. Steve Dellaporta from the United States Department of Defense, Manpower Data Center. As was alluded to in the previous comments, a leader cannot generate trust unless he or she consistently is viewed as having integrity. Integrity means doing the right thing at all times and in all circumstances, whether or not anyone is watching. Unfortunately, far too often, leaders place a higher value on impressing others than on demonstrating integrity with them. The only way it can be known for sure whether someone is honest is to observe how he or she 78 Amy Ross Anderson, “Success Will Come and Go, But Integrity Is Forever,” Forbes, 11/28/2012. Trust is destroyed by manipulating people, distorting facts, or spinning the truth. It takes having the courage of our convictions to do the right thing, no matter what the consequences will be or how inconvenient and unpopular the results. To be persuasive we must be believable; to be believable we must be credible; to be credible, we must be truthful. Unfortunately, we live in a world where far too often “the end justifies the means. Applicants for jobs might exaggerate their accomplishments or even lie about them. Mistakes made by the organization may be covered up because of fear it will lose community or stakeholder support. The list is endless, and in each case the person being dishonest is likely to have told himself/herself that there was a perfectly valid reason why the end result justified the lack of integrity. Building a reputation of integrity takes years, but it only takes a minute to lose that reputation. Another important way of demonstrating integrity is to be loyal to those who are not present. David Kolzow 67 Integrity also involves consistency of behavior, which means treating everyone by the same set of principles.
Reflective journaling can therefore provide us with a useful inter-professional tool that expands the kinds of conversations that practitioners can have about their work cheap escitalopram 20mg amex anxiety 3 months postpartum. I will argue that inter/intra teacher reflection, are essential aspects of an education for transformation since both attend to the educational forms or schemata that structure educators’ thinking. The ongoing transformation of these forms or schemata and their translation to practice in the classroom are at the core of reflective practice. Gardner (1983) has identified intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences as the “super ordinate” intelligences, since these intelligences manage one’s awareness of the self, and greatly influences our capacity to engage with the external environment in a productive way. In other words, these intelligences manage how we utilize the other intelligences as resources available to us in our engagement with the environment. Reflection fine-tunes and hones an individual’s intrapersonal intelligence, that is, an individual’s knowledge and awareness of him/herself, and his/her interpersonal intelligence, that is, his/her management of the self as learner in engaging with others in appropriately utilising the environmental resources available to him/her. This activity, self and his/her engagement with the environment, is the cornerstone of all developmental work. The use of reflective journaling as a reflective practice tool is an effective way of documenting those forms and provides both researchers and professionals with rich ‘experience-near’ snapshots of the complicated process of teaching and learning from diverse perspectives. Although the reflective journaling as reported here was neither a major component nor research strategy of the Multiple Intelligences Project, it has much to offer action researchers, policy-makers, educators, and professional developers in thinking about professional development needs generally in education and other professional groups. In addition, it holds the possibility of generating rich understandings of different contexts, teachers, and students. Furthermore it highlights the multi-dimensional nature of educational meanings emanating from different sources and perspectives. My main argument will centre on the need to reconceptualize professional development work as primarily one of bringing professional dialogue, i. Professional dialogical structures are particularly important during times of rapid social and educational changes such as we are currently experiencing. Such a movement requires ongoing support and institutional conditions conducive to reflection. The application of theory to practice is all too often simplistically conceptualised as a rational, linear, uni-dimensional process. Often, it has been reduced to an in-service model of training teachers in acquiring a number of discrete skills and knowledge and applying these skills to their classrooms. In this framing, educational policy-makers have conceptualised professional development within a knowledge/skills acquisition paradigm, and teachers have been conceptualised simply as “technical intermediaries” with little thought or resource given to teachers as active meaning-makers, embedded in larger socio-cultural and political contexts that impact greatly on what is possible in the classroom. In many cases little ongoing attention has been paid to practitioners’ interpretation of policies thereby forcing them to become, by default, what Lipsky (1980) calls “street-level policy makers”. In other words, without adequate support and ongoing evaluation of the implementation process, teachers as public servants are left with a wide range of discretionary power in interpreting and implementing policies emanating from outside the classroom.
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